Ana Gabriela Ayala GermanNational Institute of Pediatrics, Mexico
Title: Obesity and overweight in Mexico
Obesity and overweight in Mexico represent a significant burden of disease in the pediatric population. According to the 2021 National Health and Nutrition Survey, the age group from 5 to 11 years old has a national prevalence of 37.5% (overweight 18.8% and obesity 18.6%). Mexico City has the highest prevalence of overweight (23%), while the Pacific-Central region has the highest obesity (24.1%). Due to the above, we decided to carry out a study to find out the frequency of obesity in pediatric hospitalized patients in 2 second-level hospitals. A total of 91 patients were included, 54 (59.3%) from the Hospital de Tláhuac, ISSSTE, Mexico City, and 37 (40.7%) from the Hospital Infantil Eva Sámano de López Mateos, Michoacán. Regarding the demographic variables, the mean age was 9 years (5.5-12), 57.1% (n=52) were male, and 42.9% (n=39) were female. The leading causes of care were community-acquired pneumonia (30.8%), acute appendicitis (9.9%), acute cholecystitis, severe head injury, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (4.4% each). Regarding the nutritional diagnosis, we found a global prevalence of overweight or obesity of 27.3% (overweight 46.6% and obesity 53.33%). In the Hospital de Tláhuac, the most common nutritional diagnosis was overweight/obesity (38.8%). On the other hand, in the Hospital Infantil, was malnutrition (37.8%), with a predomination of mild malnutrition in 12%. Of the total number of patients with overweight/obesity, 51.6% had laboratory studies, evidencing the frequency of comorbidities in the population (Table 1). The high frequency of overweight/obesity in the general population, as well as chronic degenerative diseases, was demonstrated. It is important to highlight that nutritional diagnosis was not the diagnosis of admission to either hospital. Despite public policies, there is still a lot of work to be done for this population since the long-term consequences can bring a burden of disease and health costs. Longitudinal monitoring of overweight/obese patients is being carried out in an open population, establishing a multidisciplinary treatment.
Ana Gabriela Ayala German is a pediatrician currently working in the Pediatric Service of the Hospital General Agustín O Horan, Merida, Yucatan, Mexico.