Franco ApiyanteideNovena University, Nigeria
Title: Effectiveness of mass vaccination against measles in Yobe State
Measles is an issue of public health concern responsible for outbreaks and death of children especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study sought to determine the impact of mass vaccination against measles in Yobe State. A cross sectional survey that involved the collection of secondary data from the State Epidemiological Unit Integrated Disease Surveillance Response database was done. All cases of measles within the period under review (2016-2017) were included in the study. Comparison in the number of cases and deaths from measles that were reported pre and post mass vaccination with measles vaccine within the state was done. The mass vaccination intervention occurred in the first week of January 2017 using a developed micro-plan for the conduct of the mass vaccination. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) window version 22. A total of 4,242 cases were reported during the study period. 3780(89.1%) in 2016 (pre mass vaccination) and 462(10.9%) were reported in 2017 (post vaccination). A total of 556 deaths with case fatality rate of 13.1% was recorded during the study period. Majority of the deaths 525(94.4%) occurred in 2016 when there was no mass vaccination while few 31(5.6%) occurred in 2017 when there was mass vaccination. Mass vaccination resulted in a 78.2% decline in number of cases and 88.8% decline in the number of deaths from measles. There was a statistical significant difference in the number of cases and mortality from measles pre and post mass vaccination. Monthly case distribution mean was 276.6 (95% CI 89.8 to 463.3) with alpha set at 0.5, P = 0.008 while monthly mortality mean was 41.1 (95% CI 15.5 to 66.7) with alpha set at 0.5, P = 0.005. Mass vaccination against measles therefore confers immunity and herd immunity to populations with a subsequent significant decline in morbidity and mortality associated with the infection. It is therefore recommended that this initiative be conducted and sustained for possible elimination of measles in the Yobe State and Nigeria at large.
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